Gated Community, Cluster, Sistem Keamanan 24 Jam: Menelusuri Bentuk Perumahan dari Sisi Pengembang

Fenita Indrasari

Abstract


Bentuk perumahan berbenteng (gated community) telah banyak dikaji karena dianggap lebih banyak menimbulkan masalah daripada memberikan manfaat. Namun pada prakteknya, pengembang tetap membangun perumahan yang sejenis—bahkan dibuat sebagai cluster dengan skala yang lebih kecil dari sebelumnya. Artikel ini mengupas sudut pandang pengembang perumahan di kawasan pinggiran Kota Bandung dalam mengambil keputusan untuk membangun perumahan dengan bentuk yang serupa dengan gated community untuk menjadi dasar pengaturan bentuk perumahan. Berdasarkan wawancara diketahui bahwa selain analisis pasar, perizinan merupakan salah satu faktor yang berperan dalam proses tersebut. Dalam perizinan, bentuk perumahan tidak diatur secara langsung. Aturan yang ada hanya mencantumkan besaran nilai tertentu yang masih perlu diterjemahkan ke dalam bentuk dan melalui proses yang panjang. Pelibatan masyarakat sekitar perumahan dalam proses perizinan pun masih sangat terbatas, bahkan sering kali disalahgunakan demi kepentingan pengembang dan alasan ekonomi. Dalam artikel ini juga telah diungkap pemahaman aparat pemerintah terhadap perizinan yang mempengaruhi bentuk perumahan. Pada akhirnya, telah diidentifikasi beberapa celah potensial untuk mengarahkan pengembang supaya membangun perumahan yang memberikan lebih banyak manfaat bagi masyarakat luas.


Keywords


Bentuk perumahan; perizinan; pengembang; cluster; gated community

Full Text:

PDF

References


Aini, N, dan HE Kusuma. 2016. “Faktor-Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Ketertarikan pada Perumahan Berbasis Agama.” In Temu Ilmiah IPLBI 2016, 147–57.

Bagaeen, Samer, dan Ola Uduku. 2010. Gated Communities: Social Sustainability in Contemporary and Historical Gated Developments. Gated Communities: Social Sustainability in Contemporary and Historical Gated Developments. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781849774772.

Blakely, Edward J, dan Mary Gail Snyder. 1997. “Divided We Fall: Gated and Walled Communities in the United States.” Architecture of Fear. Vol. 320. New York: Princeton Architectural Press New York.

———. 1998a. “Forting up: Gated communities in the United States.” Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, 61–72.

———. 1998b. “Separate places: Crime and security in gated communities.” Reducing crime through real estate development and management, 53–70.

Campbell, Heather, Malcolm Tait, dan Craig Watkins. 2014. “Is there space for better planning in a neoliberal world? Implications for planning practice and theory.” Journal of Planning Education and Research 34 (1): 45–59.

Charmes, Eric. 2010. “Cul-de-sacs, superblocks and environmental areas as supports of residential territorialization.” Journal of Urban Design 15 (3): 357–74.

Diningrat, Rendy Adriyan. 2015. “Spatial Segregation of Large Scale Housing: The Case of Kota Harapan Indah New Town, Bekasi.” Journal of Regional and City Planning 26 (2): 111–29.

Duany, Andres, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, dan Jeff Speck. 2001. Suburban nation: The rise of sprawl and the decline of the American dream. Macmillan.

Goix, R Le, dan C Webster. 2008. “Gated communities. Geography Compass” 2 (4): 1118–1214.

Grant, Jill, dan Andrew Curran. 2007. “Privatized suburbia: The planning implications of private roads.” Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 34 (4): 740–54. https://doi.org/10.1068/b32136.

Grant, Jill, dan Lindsey Mittelsteadt. 2004. “Types of gated communities.” Environment and planning B: Planning and Design 31 (6): 913–30.

Hapsariniaty, Alia Widyarini, Boedi Darma Sidi, dan Allis Nurdini. 2013. “Comparative Analysis of Choosing to Live in Gated Communities: A case study of Bandung metropolitan area.” Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 101: 394–403.

Hartanto, Tri. 2016. “Gated Community Studi Kasus: Perumahan Casa Grande di Yogyakarta.” Jurnal Teknik Sipil dan Arsitektur 18 (22).

Hastijanti, Retno. 2003. “Kampung Kota sebagai ‘Permukiman Berpintu Gerbang.’” Nalars 2 (2): 59–63.

Hogan, Trevor, Tim Bunnell, Choon-Piew Pow, Eka Permanasari, dan Sirat Morshidi. 2012. “Asian urbanisms and the privatization of cities.” Cities 29 (1): 59–63.

Kementerian Perumahan dan Kerajaan Tempatan Semenanjung Malaysia. 2010. Garis Panduan Perancangan Gated community and Guarded Neigbourhood. https://www.mpklang.gov.my/sites/default/files/panduan/Garis Panduan Guarded and Gated Community.pdf.

Kozak, Daniel. 2008. “Assessing urban fragmentation: The emergence of new typologies in central Buenos Aires.” World Cities and Urban Form: Fragmented, Polycentric, Sustainable, 269–92. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315811871.

Lang, Robert E, dan Karen A Danielsen. 1997. “Gated communities in America: Walling out the world?” Housing Policy Debate 8 (4): 867–99.

Leisch, Harald. 2002. “Gated communities in Indonesia.” Cities 19 (5): 341–50.

Monkkonen, Paavo. 2013. “Urban land-use regulations and housing markets in developing countries: Evidence from Indonesia on the importance of enforcement.” Land Use Policy 34: 255–64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2013.03.015.

Rahadi, Raden Aswin, Sudarso Kaderi Wiryono, Deddy P Koesrindartoto, dan Indra Budiman Syamwil. 2013. “Attributes influencing housing product value and price in Jakarta metropolitan region.” Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 101: 368–78.

Samsirina. 2015. “Tipo-Morfologi Gated Communities di Metropolitan Jakarta.” Disertasi Program Doktor Arsitektur ITB.

Samsirina, S, WD Pratiwi, dan IB Harun. 2017. “Tourism inside gated: The transformation of gated housing in peri-urban of Bandung.” ASEAN Journal on Hospitality and Tourism 15 (1): 24–35.

Sueca, N, dan LDR Fitriani. 2012. “Profile gated community di Denpasar.” In Temu Ilmiah IPLBI 2012, 45–48.

Talen, Emily. 2013. “Prospects for walkable, mixed-income neighborhoods: Insights from US developers.” Journal of Housing and the Built Environment 28 (1): 79–94.

Tedong, Peter Aning, Jill L Grant, dan Wan Nor Azriyati Wan Abd Aziz. 2014. “The social and spatial implications of community action to enclose space: Guarded neighbourhoods in Selangor, Malaysia.” Cities 41: 30–37.

Wulangsari, Amalia, dan Wisnu Pradoto. 2014. “Tipologi Segregasi Permukiman berdasarkan Faktor dan Pola Permukiman di Solo Baru, Sukoharjo.” Jurnal Pembangunan Wilayah & Kota 10 (4): 387–99.

Yandri, Pitri. 2015. “Conflicts and segregation of housing cluster communities and its surrounding.” Jurnal Kependudukan Indonesia 10 (2): 75–88.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.31815/jp.2021.16.69-81

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright of Jurnal Permukiman ( e-ISSN: 2339-2975 ; print ISSN:  1907-4352 )

CC

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.